Java 语法清单

Java 语法清单

Java 语法清单翻译自 egek92JavaCheatSheet,从属于笔者的 Java 入门与实践系列。时间仓促,笔者只是简单翻译了些标题与内容整理,支持原作者请前往原文点赞。需要注意的是,此文在 Reddit 上也引起了广泛的讨论,此文讲解的语法要点还是以 Java 7 为主,未涉及 Java 8 中内容,略显陈旧,读者可以带着批判的视角去看。进阶阅读推荐 Java 进阶面试问题列表 - 知乎专栏,如果你是技术初学者,建议阅读 2016-我的技术之路:编程知识体系结构以获得相对完整的技术全局观

Java CheatSheet

基础

hello, world! :

if-else:

loops:



do-while:

do {
        System.out.println("Count is: " + count);
        count++;
    } while (count < 11);

switch-case:


数组:


二维数组:


对象:


类:


方法:


Java IDE 比较:


图片来自 Wikipedia

个人推荐 IntelliJ IDEA 并且对于 学生免费.

字符串操作

字符串比较:

boolean result = str1.equals(str2);
boolean result = str1.equalsIgnoreCase(str2);

搜索与检索:

int result = str1.indexOf(str2);
int result = str1.indexOf(str2,5);
String index = str1.substring(14);

单字节处理:

for (int i=0;i<str1.length();i++){

char aChar = str1.charAt(i);
}

字符串反转:

public class Main {

    public static void main(String[] args) {

        String str1 = "whatever string something";

        StringBuffer str1buff = new StringBuffer(str1);

        String str1rev = str1buff.reverse().toString();

        System.out.println(str1rev);


    }
}

按单词的字符串反转:

public class Main {

public static void main(String[] args) {

    String str1 = "reverse this string";

    Stack<Object> stack = new Stack<>();

    StringTokenizer strTok = new StringTokenizer(str1);

    while(strTok.hasMoreTokens()){

        stack.push(strTok.nextElement());
    }

    StringBuffer str1rev = new StringBuffer();

    while(!stack.empty()){

        str1rev.append(stack.pop());
        str1rev.append(" ");


    }

    System.out.println(str1rev);



}
}

大小写转化:

String strUpper = str1.toUpperCase();
String strLower = str1.toLowerCase();

首尾空格移除:

String str1 = "     asdfsdf   ";
str1.trim(); //asdfsdf

空格移除:

str1.replace(" ","");

字符串转化为数组:

String str = "tim,kerry,timmy,camden";
String[] results = str.split(",");

数据结构

重置数组大小:

int[] myArray = new int[10];

int[] tmp = new int[myArray.length + 10];
System.arraycopy(myArray, 0, tmp, 0, myArray.length);
myArray = tmp;

集合遍历:

 for (Iterator it = map.entrySet().iterator();it.hasNext();){

            Map.Entry entry = (Map.Entry)it.next();
            Object key = entry.getKey();
            Object value = entry.getValue();
        }

创建映射集合:

        HashMap map = new HashMap();
        map.put(key1,obj1);
        map.put(key2,obj2);
        map.put(key2,obj2);

数组排序:

       int[] nums = {1,4,7,324,0,-4};
       Arrays.sort(nums);
       System.out.println(Arrays.toString(nums));

列表排序:

        List<String> unsortList = new ArrayList<String>();

        unsortList.add("CCC");
        unsortList.add("111");
        unsortList.add("AAA");
        Collections.sort(unsortList);

列表搜索:

int index = arrayList.indexOf(obj);

finding an object by value in a hashmap:

hashmap.containsValue(obj);

finding an object by key in a hashmap:

hashmap.containsKey(obj);

二分搜索:

int[] nums = new int[]{7,5,1,3,6,8,9,2};
Arrays.sort(nums);
int index = Arrays.binarySearch(nums,6);
System.out.println("6 is at index: "+ index);

arrayList 转化为 array:

Object[] objects = arrayList.toArray();

将 hashmap 转化为 array:

Object[] objects = hashmap.entrySet().toArray();

时间与日期类型

打印时间与日期:

Date todaysDate = new Date(); //todays date
SimpleDateFormat formatter = new SimpleDateFormat("EEE, dd MMM yyyy HH:mm:ss"); //date format
String formattedDate = formatter.format(todaysDate);
System.out.println(formattedDate);

将日期转化为日历:

Date mDate = new Date();
Calendar mCal = Calendar.getInstance();
mCal.setTime(mDate);

将 calendar 转化为 date:

Calendar mCal = Calendar.getInstance();
Date mDate = mDate.getTime();

字符串解析为日期格式:

public void StringtoDate(String x) throws ParseException{
String date = "March 20, 1992 or 3:30:32pm";
DateFormat df = DateFormat.getDateInstance();
Date newDate = df.parse(date);
     
    }

date arithmetic using date objects:

Date date = new Date();
long time = date.getTime();
time += 5*24*60*60*1000; //may give a numeric overflow error on IntelliJ IDEA
Date futureDate = new Date(time);

System.out.println(futureDate);

date arithmetic using calendar objects:

Calendar today = Calendar.getInstance();
today.add(Calendar.DATE,5);

difference between two dates:

 long diff = time1 - time2;
 diff = diff/(1000*60*60*24);

comparing dates:

boolean result = date1.equals(date2);

getting details from calendar:

  
Calendar cal = Calendar.getInstance();
cal.get(Calendar.MONTH);
cal.get(Calendar.YEAR);
cal.get(Calendar.DAY_OF_YEAR);
cal.get(Calendar.WEEK_OF_YEAR);
cal.get(Calendar.DAY_OF_MONTH);
cal.get(Calendar.DAY_OF_WEEK_IN_MONTH);
cal.get(Calendar.DAY_OF_MONTH);
cal.get(Calendar.HOUR_OF_DAY);

calculating the elapsed time:

long startTime = System.currentTimeMillis();
//times flies by..
long finishTime =  System.currentTimeMillis();
long timeElapsed = startTime-finishTime;
System.out.println(timeElapsed);

正则表达式

使用 REGEX 寻找匹配字符串:

String pattern = "[TJ]im";
       Pattern regPat = Pattern.compile(pattern,Pattern.CASE_INSENSITIVE);
       String text = "This is Jim and that's Tim";
       Matcher matcher = regPat.matcher(text);
       
       if (matcher.find()){
           
           String matchedText = matcher.group();
           System.out.println(matchedText);
       }

替换匹配字符串:

    String pattern = "[TJ]im";
       Pattern regPat = Pattern.compile(pattern,Pattern.CASE_INSENSITIVE);
       String text = "This is jim and that's Tim";
       Matcher matcher = regPat.matcher(text);
       String text2 = matcher.replaceAll("Tom");
       System.out.println(text2);

使用 StringBuffer 替换匹配字符串:

 Pattern p = Pattern.compile("My");
       Matcher m = p.matcher("My dad and My mom");
       StringBuffer sb = new StringBuffer();
       boolean found = m.find();

       while(found){
           m.appendReplacement(sb,"Our");
           found = m.find();

       }
        m.appendTail(sb);
        System.out.println(sb);

打印所有匹配次数:

String pattern = "\\sa(\\w)*t(\\w)*"; //contains "at"
      Pattern regPat = Pattern.compile(pattern);
      String text = "words something at atte afdgdatdsf hey";
      Matcher matcher = regPat.matcher(text);
      while(matcher.find()){


          String matched = matcher.group();
          System.out.println(matched);
      }

打印包含固定模式的行:

 String pattern = "^a";
      Pattern regPat = Pattern.compile(pattern);
      Matcher matcher = regPat.matcher("");
        BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader(new FileReader("file.txt"));
        String line;
        while ((line = reader.readLine())!= null){
            matcher.reset(line);
            if (matcher.find()){
                System.out.println(line);
            }
        }

匹配新行:

String pattern = "\\d$"; //any single digit
     String text = "line one\n line two\n line three\n";
     Pattern regPat = Pattern.compile(pattern, Pattern.MULTILINE);
     Matcher matcher = regPat.matcher(text);
     while (matcher.find()){

         System.out.println(matcher.group());


     }

regex:

  • beginning of a string: ^

  • end of a string: $

  • 0 or 1 times: ?

  • 0 or more times: (*) //without brackets

  • 1 or more times: +

  • alternative characters: [...]

  • alternative patterns: |

  • any character: .

  • a digit: d

  • a non-digit: D

  • whitespace: s

  • non-whitespace: S

  • word character: w

  • non word character: W

数字与数学操作处理

内建数据类型:


  • byte: 8bits, Byte

  • short: 16bits, Short

  • long: 64bits, Long

  • float: 32bits, Float

判断字符串是否为有效数字:

  String str = "dsfdfsd54353%%%";

     try{

         int result = Integer.parseInt(str);

     }

     catch (NumberFormatException e){
         System.out.println("not valid");
     }

比较 Double:

Double a = 4.5;
      Double b= 4.5;

      boolean result = a.equals(b);

      if (result) System.out.println("equal");

rounding:

double doubleVal = 43.234234200000000234040324;
       float floatVal = 2.98f;

      long longResult = Math.round(doubleVal);
      int intResult = Math.round(floatVal);

        System.out.println(longResult + " and " + intResult); // 43 and 3

格式化数字:

double value = 2343.8798;
        NumberFormat numberFormatter;
        String formattedValue;
        numberFormatter = NumberFormat.getNumberInstance();
        formattedValue = numberFormatter.format(value);
        System.out.format("%s%n",formattedValue); //2.343,88

格式化货币:

double currency = 234546457.99;
       NumberFormat currencyFormatter;
       String formattedCurrency;

       currencyFormatter = NumberFormat.getCurrencyInstance();

       formattedCurrency = currencyFormatter.format(currency);

        System.out.format("%s%n",formattedCurrency); // $ 234.546.457,99

二进制、八进制、十六进制转换:

int val = 25;
String binaryStr = Integer.toBinaryString(val);
String octalStr = Integer.toOctalString(val);
String hexStr = Integer.toHexString(val);

随机数生成:

double rn = Math.random();
        int rint = (int) (Math.random()*10); // random int between 0-10

        System.out.println(rn);
        System.out.println(rint);

计算三角函数:

double cos = Math.cos(45);
        double sin = Math.sin(45);
        double tan = Math.tan(45);

计算对数

double logVal = Math.log(125.5);

Math library:


输入输出操作:

从输入流读取:

//throw IOexception first

BufferedReader inStream = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(System.in));
      String inline ="";
      while (!(inline.equalsIgnoreCase("quit"))){
          System.out.println("prompt> ");
          inline=inStream.readLine();
      }

格式化输出:

StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer();
      Formatter formatter = new Formatter(buffer, Locale.US);
      formatter.format("PI: "+Math.PI);
        System.out.println(buffer.toString());

formatter format calls:


打开文件:

BufferedReader br = new BufferedReader(new FileReader(textFile.txt)); //for reading
    BufferedWriter bw = new BufferedWriter(new FileWriter(textFile.txt)); //for writing

读取二进制数据:

InputStream is = new FileInputStream(fileName);
    int offset = 0;
    int bytesRead = is.read(bytes, ofset, bytes.length-offset);

文件随机访问:

 File file = new File(something.bin);
    RandomAccessFile raf = new RandomAccessFile(file,"rw");
    raf.seek(file.length());

读取 Jar/zip/rar 文件:

ZipFile file =new ZipFile(filename);
    Enumeration entries = file.entries();
    while(entries.hasMoreElements()){

        ZipEntry entry = (ZipEntry) entries.nextElement();
        if (entry.isDirectory()){
            //do something
        }
        else{
            //do something
        }
    }
    file.close();

文件与目录

创建文件:

File f = new File("textFile.txt");
boolean result = f.createNewFile();

文件重命名:

File f = new File("textFile.txt");
File newf = new File("newTextFile.txt");
boolean result = f.renameto(newf);

删除文件:

File f = new File("somefile.txt");
f.delete();

改变文件属性:

File f = new File("somefile.txt");
f.setReadOnly(); // making the file read only
f.setLastModified(desired time); 

获取文件大小:

File f = new File("somefile.txt");
long length = file.length();

判断文件是否存在:

File f = new File("somefile.txt");
boolean status = f.exists();

移动文件:

File f = new File("somefile.txt");
File dir = new File("directoryName");
boolean success = f.renameTo(new File(dir, file.getName()));

获取绝对路径:

File f = new File("somefile.txt");
File absPath = f.getAbsoluteFile();

判断是文件还是目录:

File f = new File("somefile.txt");
    boolean isDirectory = f.isDirectory();
    System.out.println(isDirectory); //false

列举目录下文件:

File directory = new File("users/ege");
    String[] result = directory.list();

创建目录:

boolean result = new File("users/ege").mkdir();

网络客户端

服务器连接:

String serverName = "www.egek.us";
    Socket socket = new Socket(serverName, 80);
    System.out.println(socket);

网络异常处理:

try {
            Socket sock = new Socket(server_name, tcp_port);
            System.out.println("Connected to " + server_name);
        sock.close(  );

    } catch (UnknownHostException e) {
        System.err.println(server_name + " Unknown host");
        return;
    } catch (NoRouteToHostException e) {
        System.err.println(server_name + " Unreachable" );
        return;
    } catch (ConnectException e) {
        System.err.println(server_name + " connect refused");
        return;
    } catch (java.io.IOException e) {
        System.err.println(server_name + ' ' + e.getMessage(  ));
        return;
    }

包与文档

创建包:

package com.ege.example;

使用 JavaDoc 注释某个类:

javadoc -d \home\html
    -sourcepath \home\src
    -subpackages java.net

Jar 打包:

jar cf project.jar *.class

运行 Jar:

java -jar something.jar

排序算法

  • Bubble Sort

  • Linear Search

  • Binary Search

  • Selection Sort

  • Insertion Sort

Over here

编辑于 2017-03-06

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