Hyphens (-) & Dashes (– or —)

Hyphens (-) & Dashes (– or —)

一、两者区别及使用规则

引用自https://www.wikihow.com/Use-English-Punctuation-Correctly

英文写作一般参考[The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition]

Chicago Manual of Style should be referenced by all authors and editors.
(Kira McFadden)

其中 Chapter 6 Punctuation 专门介绍了标点符号。[Contents]

  • Hyphens -
  1. Hyphens in compound names and words
  2. Hyphens as separators
  • En Dashes –
  1. En dash as “to”
  2. En dash with an unfinished number range
  3. En dashes with compound adjectives
  4. En dashes with campus locations
  5. En dashes and line breaks
  6. En dash as em dash
  7. En dash as minus sign
  • Em Dashes —
  1. Em dashes instead of commas, parentheses, or colons
  2. Em dash between noun and pronoun
  3. Em dashes for sudden breaks or interruptions
  4. Em dashes with “that is,” “namely,” “for example,” and similar expressions
  5. Em dashes with other punctuation
  6. Em dashes and line breaks
  7. Em dashes in lieu of quotation marks
  8. Em dashes in lists, indexes, and tables
  • 2-Em Dashes ——
  • 3-Em Dashes ———
——— —— — – - – — —— ———

HYPHEN (-)

1)连接前缀与后缀

co-worker
anti-inflammatory

2)连接复合词成分

upper-case letter
evidence-based

用于复合形容词(phrasal adjectives)时,遵循以下3个基本规则:

1. 当置于名词前时

Generally, if it is placed before a noun, you should hyphenate the phrase to avoid misdirecting the reader

dog-eat-dog competition

连字符(-)的使用与否会产生极大差别。故应正确使用,避免与分写复合词(open compounds)【(O_O)?翻阅了很多手头上的资料一直没找到足够简洁的官方译法……(๑´ㅂ`๑)还是暂时根据《21世纪大英汉词典》译作「分写复合词」吧】的用法混淆。如:

small-animal hospital
small animal hospital

four-armed villains
four armed villains

2. 当复合型形容词中的一个元素是一个复合名词时

If a compound noun is an element of a phrasal adjective, the entire compound must be hyphenated to clarify the relationship among words

time-clock-punching-employees

3. 当超过一个复合型形容词修饰一个名词时

If more than one phrasal adjective modifies a single noun, hyphenation becomes especially important

nineteenth-century song-and-dance numbers
state-inspected assisted-living facility

3)分隔数字,如电话号码,社会保障号码(Social security numbers),ISBNs

1-800-999-3654 或 (1-800) 999-3654
9-11-23-8-1-6

4)书写分数 (connecting written-out fractions)

three-quarters

5)逐字拼出单词或姓名,常用于对话,北美手势语(American Sign Language)等

“My name is Allison; that’s a-l-l-i-s-o-n.”

6)行尾单词排版断行

Hyphens should be used when spelling out a name or word letter by let-
ter, in dialogue, in American Sign Language, and elsewhere. Hyphens ca-
n also appear in URLs and email addresses. A hyphen must not be add-
ed to such a string when it breaks at the end of a line.

连字符也会在网页链接(URLs)或邮件地址(e-mail)中出现,此时行尾不能使用连字符换行。

——— —— — – - – — —— ——— —— — – - – — —— ——— —— — – - – — —— ———

EM DASH vs EN DASH

EN DASH (–)

——据说因字母n的宽度得名【不是我瞎掰的,见参考文献[5][8],是别人瞎掰的】

1)作to用。通常连接数字(日期,时间,页码),或单词(较少使用)。

1. 用于标示范围,有“至”或“包括”(up to & including)的含义。

The years 1558–1746 were very troublesome.
Chapters 17–26 show the rise in civilization.
“In Genesis 6:13–21 we find God’s instructions to Noah”
The January–February issue is due on newsstands tomorrow.

用于表示未终止的数字范围(unfinished number range)时,dash不接数字,也不加空格,如

Jane Doe (1950–); or Jane Doe (b. 1950)
  • 应注意,如果使用 from 和 between 来引出,不要使用短划线(–)
【正确】She served as secretary of state from 1996 to 1999.
【错误】She served as secretary of state from 1996–1999.
【正确】The regime‘s most oppressive treatment occurred between 1965 and 1970.
【错误】The regime’s most oppressive treatment occurred between 1965–1970.

2. 也可表示关系或联系。

mother–daughter relationship
US–Canadian relations

有说法表明其暗示紧张或对立关系(tension or opposition in a relationship [5])。不可否认,这种断言难以稽考[5],但在具体使用中,短划线(–)确实可用以连接矛盾双方[7],如

liberal–conservative debate
The article supports the tax–spend hypothesis: Tax revenues determine government spending.

再比如用于显示比分

I left at halftime with the score stuck at 3–1.
UCLA beat USC 28–14 in the final game of the regular season.
The Supreme Court voted 5–4 to uphold the decision.
The president’s nominee was confirmed by the Senate, which voted 62–38 along party lines.

或用以显示移动方向,如

Boston–Hartford route
the Los Angeles–London flight
The New York–Washington, D.C. run takes about three hours by train.
There is a north–south railway in the same area as the highway that runs east–west.

2)替代连字符(-)使用。在复合形容词中,当其中一个元素是分写复合词或带连字符的复合词时。

【Hyphen】She is an award-winning novelist.
【En dash】She is a National Book Award–winning novelist.
【Hyphen】It was just one of many changes in this post-Clinton era.
【En dash】It was just one of many changes in this post–New Deal era.
【Hyphen】They were a bunch of college-educated snobs.
【En dash】They were a bunch of prep school–educated snobs.
【Hyphen】He submitted his manuscript to a print-only publisher.
【En dash】He submitted his manuscript to an e-book–only publisher.

1. 分写复合词(open compound)的栗子:

a Nobel Prize–winning physicist
a hospital–nursing home connection
a nursing home–home care policy

在上例中,Nobel Prize 和 winning,hospital 和 nursing home,以及 nursing home 和 home 组成的新复合词中,其中一个元素本身便是分写复合词。

还可替代连字符(-)给带专有名词性质的分写复合词(proper open compound)加前缀,如

the pre–World War II years

在上例中,用短划线(–)将前缀 pre 与专有名词 World War II 桥接,而不能使用连字符(-)。

2. 带连字符的复合词(hyphenated compound)的栗子:

a quasi-public–quasi-judicial body (a body that is quasi-public and quasi-judicial)

在上例中,quasi-public 和 quasi-judicial 是两个已带连字符的复合词。

3)用于表明大学校区位置。

the University of Wisconsin–Madison
the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee

4)作减号用。【据说这样加号(+)和减号(–)宽度一致】

应慎用en dash,以免和减号混淆,如[3]

【正确】with temperature of −5 to 25°C
【错误】with temperature of −5–25°C
【正确】−4 to −6°C
【错误】−4– −6°C
  • 应注意,en dash 时前后均不留空,除非不留空格看起来很迷或者很怪时,如
【正确】12 June – 3 July
【错误】12 June–3 July

——— —— — – - – — —— ——— —— — – - – — —— ——— —— — – - – — —— ———

EM DASH (—)

——据说因字母m的宽度得名【不是我瞎掰的,见参考文献[5][28][30],是别人瞎掰】

——据说是连字符(-)的三倍长【不是我瞎掰的,见参考文献[6],最多也是别人在瞎掰】

——长划线(em dash)有时就简称为破折号(dash)【是的没错,其实中译并未简化……】

——长划线(—)有时用2个连字符(-)代替【2/3-em dash是连打4/6个无空格的连字符】

  • PS: 澄清:长划线(—)其实无关M宽度,而是基于字型(typeface)磅值(point size)[30]
An em is simply the horizontal measure exactly corresponding to the type size.
大写M宽度说的反例:两种不同字体的“M”却有相同宽度的长划线
  • PS: 长划线通常两边不带空格(—),但也有很多报纸会在长划线两边加空格( — )。
Most newspapers — and all that follow AP style — insert a space before and after the em dash.

1)替代冒号、逗号或括号,表示强调或解释说明。

The chancellor—he had been awake half the night—came down in an angry mood.
  • 一般单独或成对使用。一句话中出现最多出现两个破折号,否则易引起混乱。
Many people seek help from naturopathic medical professionals — those who emphasize using diet, exercise, meditation, and other tools for improving health.

A vast amount of serotonin — about 95 percent of the body’s total — is produced in the digestive system.

(1) 替代冒号

It was a revival of the most potent image in modern democracy—the revolutionary idea.

(2) 替代逗号

She outlined the strategy—a strategy that would, she hoped, secure peace.

替换强制性标点符号(mandatory punctuation),如下例中 Iowa 和 2013 之后的逗号:

【无破折号】The man from Ames, Iowa, arrived.
【有破折号】The man—he was from Ames, Iowa—arrived.

【无破折号】The May 1, 2013, edition of the Ames Sentinel arrived in June.
【有破折号】The Ames Sentinel—dated May 1, 2013—arrived in June.

(3) 替代括号

The influence of three impressionists—Monet, Sisley, and Degas—is obvious in her work.

1. 用于强调句子结论时,可用破折号替代冒号。冒号较破折号正式些。

After months of deliberation, the jurors reached a unanimous verdict—guilty.
The white sand, the warm water, the sparkling sun—this is what brought them to Hawaii.

2. 在与作句子插入语的短语或分句连用时,破折号与逗号、括号功能类似。

The food, which was delicious, reminded me of home.
The food—which was delicious—reminded me of home.
The food (which was delicious) reminded me of home.

不过,三者仍有细微差别。一种可行的区分方法是,破折号的插入性略强于逗号、稍逊于括号( comma < em dash < parentheses)[6][17],对插入语的停顿或强调优于其余两者[29]

And yet, when the car was finally delivered—nearly three months after it was ordered—she decided she no longer wanted it, leaving the dealer with an oddly equipped car that would be difficult to sell.

破折号可当作更强版本的逗号(和分号类似)。比如,当插入语已包含逗号或如果用逗号会很别扭(awkward)时,会使用破折号(—)。

Steely Dan’s title track to FM—a justly forgotten, Robert Altman-inspired 1978 comedy that tries to pass off Foreigner, Foghat, and REO Speedwagon as paragons of rock rebellion—initially sounds like an extension of that movie’s middle-of-the-road sounds.

Since 2007, the consensus of the economic establishment—bankers, policymakers, CEOs, stock analysts, pundits—has been catastrophically wrong.

Both Dagan and Diskin oppose military action against Iran unless all other options—primarily international diplomatic pressure and perhaps sabotage—have been exhausted.
  • 作为逗号升级版的破折号通常单独出现在句尾。如
The all-renewable energy sector is 30 years away — and always will be.
It’s that time of year again—time for New Year’s Resolutions!

再者,括号比破折号正式一些, 而且破折号更有插入感。所以如果想让读者注意插入内容,则用破折号;如果想不易察觉地插入内容,则用括号。[17]

【这里需注明,上文所述的插入性强(parenthesis with more emphasis)和这里所说的插入感强(stronger interpolation 或者说 more intrusive)所指不同,前者在于附带作用,后者在于书面观感。笔者只对资料进行汇总整合梳理,虽有依据,并无考证,对于一些涉及主观性感受的观点,不建议全盘采纳,众说纷纭,转译至此,仅供参考。事实上,不同作者写作时会有不同考量,无需拘泥。误用与否事关个人口味,并受制于作者或读者感受到的效果(effect on the writer’s or reader’s 'ear')[24][8]。】

另外,如果用括号会使句子断口太明显(parentheses would be too strong a break in a sentence),可以用破折号(—)[6]。如

The president’s nephews—sons of his late brother—include Amar, the deputy director for national security …
  • 作为括号体验版(作插入语以附加说明)的破折号通常成对出现。但在句末使用时,只用一个破折号(—)。
After three weeks on set, the cast was fed up with his direction (or, rather, lack of direction).

After three weeks on set, the cast was fed up with his direction—or, rather, lack of direction.
  • 替代括号时,应省略周围的标点符号。
Upon discovering the errors (all 124 of them), the publisher immediately recalled the books.

Upon discovering the errors—all 124 of them—the publisher immediately recalled the books.
  • 应注意,对于已被长划线(一个或一对)分隔的结构,不能使用长划线(—),而应使用括号或逗号以免混淆。如
The Whipplesworth conference—which had already been interrupted by three demonstrations (the last bordering on violence)—was adjourned promptly.

The Whipplesworth conference—which had already been interrupted by three demonstrations, the last bordering on violence—was adjourned promptly.

2)用于思考、说话、句子结构突然中断或停顿;或替代省略号,表示声音拖长或渐弱。

"Well, I don't know," I began tentatively. "I thought I might—"
"Might what?" she demanded.
  • 应注意,表示说话断断续续不能用破折号(—),而应用省略号(…)标示,如
I…I…uh, I’m not sure why the chicken…well, it was just…

两者的区别与中文标点符号用法类似:

【省略号】说话断断续续
【破折号】说话突然中断

标点符号不同则表意不同,来感受一下:

‘Will he—can he—obtain the necessary signatures?’ asked Mill
‘Will he…can he…obtain the necessary signatures?’ asked Mill.

前者,说话者在校准确认自己的用词(verifying);后者,因说话者口吃结巴而语句断断续续(stuttering)。

1. 被人打断(interruption)

"But I'm trying to explain that I—"
"I'm aware of your mitigating circumstances, but your negative attitude was excessive."

HOWARD: … She’s totally unapologetic, she’s—
CHEW-BOSE: She’s everything.

用于说话者讲话重叠时,在视觉上表明这种转移。如下例选自 Joseph Heller 的 Catch-22

He was Cain, Ulysses, the Flying Dutchman; he was Lot in Sodom, Deirdre of the Sorrows, Sweeney in the nightingales among trees. He was the miracle ingredient Z-147. He was—
"Crazy!" Clevinger interrupted, shrieking. "That's what you are! Crazy!"
"—immense. I'm a real, slam-bang, honest-to-goodness, three-fisted humdinger. I'm a bona fide supraman."

2. 话语中断(sudden break)

比如,随着思绪发展思想演变而修改语句。

"I believe I shall—no, I'm going to do it."

3. 声音拖延(trailing off)

陷入沉思或情绪化的延长,通常用于对白或第一人称叙述,如

"I sense something; a presence I've not felt since—"
"Get out or else—"

省略号或破折号均可用于「急止法(Aposiopesis)」。不过,因为这种修辞手法用省略号更为常见,在阐述性文字(expository text)中将破折号用于此目的,可能会引起歧义;尽管破折号可表现戏剧独白( dramatic monologue)中强烈的情感,很多读者会以为它起的是中断作用。

4. 长时停顿(long pause)

Lord Cardinal! if thou think'st on heaven's bliss, Hold up thy hand, make signal of that hope.— He dies, and makes no sigh!
— Shakespeare, from Henry VI, Part 2

3)偶尔用于分隔引导词(一个或一系列名词)和引导主句的代词。

Em dash is occasionally used to set off an introductory noun, or a series of nouns, from a pronoun that introduces the main clause.

Consensus—that was the will-o’-the wisp he doggedly pursued.

Broken promises, petty rivalries, and false rumors—such were the obstacles he encountered.

Darkness, thunder, a sudden scream—nothing alarmed the child.

Kingston, who first conceived the idea; Barber, who organized the fundraising campaign; and West, who conducted the investigation—those were the women most responsible for the movement's early success.

【此点与[3]不同,不知@magasa是否与笔者用了相同的资料来源】

4)用于 that is 或 namely 或 for example 等表达之前。

My friends—that is, my former friends—ganged up on me.

5)和其他标点连用。

如果在逗号通常会将附属分句(dependent clause)与独立分句(independent clause)分离的语境下需要一个破折号,则省略逗号【若想详细了解 in/dependent clause,推荐阅读参考文献[9]

Because the data had not been fully analyzed—let alone collated—the publication of the report was delayed.

同样,如果在所引用材料的末尾使用破折号来表示打断,则可以在指明说话者的单词之前省略逗号。

‘I assure you, we shall never—’ Sylvia began, but Mark cut her short.

另外,如果中断来自于所引用材料的外部,则破折号应在引号外面。

"Someday he's going to hit one of those long shots, and"—his voice turned huffy—"I won't be there to see it."
  • 应注意,在现代用法中,问号或感叹号可以先于破折号,而逗号、冒号或分号则不行,通常句号也极少用于破折号之前。
Without further warning—but what could we have done to stop her?—she left the plant, determined to stop the union in its tracks.

Only if—heaven forbid!—you lose your passport should you call home.
  • 在以破折号结尾的疑问句中,
“Why would I ever—”

应以问号结尾,

“Why would I ever—?”

除非在另一行里继续这个问题。

“Why would I ever—” “But mom, I need to get Teddy!” “—run a twenty-mile marathon with a bad leg?” she demanded.
  • PS: 如果使用智能引号功能(Smart Quotes),
"straight/dumb quotes" vs “curly/smart quotes”

以长划线(—)结束的引用句末尾就会出错。

“I never—”

为解决这个问题,可在末尾再打一个字母,

“I never—l”

并在引号放置正确后删除这个字母。

“I never—”

7)用于引文来源之前。

Poetry is a deal of joy and pain and wonder, with a dash of the dictionary.
—Kahlil Gibran

A penny saved is a penny earned. — Benjamin Franklin

The Walrus and the Carpenter Were walking close at hand; They wept like anything to see Such quantities of sand: "If this were only cleared away," They said, "it would be grand!"
— Lewis Carroll

8)替代引号,用作引文线(Quotation dash),也即「程度线(Horizontal bar)」(编码不同),用于对话中另起一段。

―Oh saints above! Miss Douce said, sighed above her jumping rose. I wished I hadn't laughed so much. I feel all wet
―Oh Miss Douce! Miss Kennedy protested. You horrid thing!

—Will he obtain the necessary signatures?
—Of course he will!

9)用于列表、索引和表格。

—body armor: cuirass, 135–36, 147, 152,
244, 258, 260, 311; greaves, 135, 179,
260; helmets, 101, 135, 147, 221, 243,
258

表格中未知的值,如

|    Time (h)   |  Volume (ml)  |  
| ------------- |:-------------:|
|      24       |      12       |
|      48       |      8        |
|      72       |      —        |


10)作为项目符号(bullet point),如在待办事项列表中:

—wash the car
—walk the dog
—attempt to explain em and en dashes
Primary Function of An EM DASH

2 EM DASH (——)

用于修订增补,标示故意省略或客观缺失的单词或其中一部分字母。如隐去姓名,屏蔽脏话(“哔——”),省去在引述或重印的材料中难以辨认的文字等。

Mr. J—— testified that the defendant yelled, “Die, a——,” before pulling the trigger.

From the faded and water-damaged note, we made out only this: “Was ne——y going to m—— K——, but now ——t.”

当整个单词都缺失时,2-em —— 两端都应留出空格;当单词中一部分字母缺失时,2-em d——h 和未缺失部分之间不留空格;当缺失至词尾时,2-em d—— 后面应留出空格(除非紧随其后的是句号或其他标点符号)。

“The religion gives its —— to the language spoken there”.
David H——h [Hirsch?] voted aye.
Admiral N—— and Lady R—— were among the guests.

当整个单词都缺失时,2-em dash 和 3-em dash 都可以用。无论使用哪一符号,均需通篇一致。其周围标点符号应正常使用。

The juvenile defendant, ———, was arraigned yesterday.
  • 应注意,虽然两个长划线(——)有时代表需要提供的材料,但不应将其与填充的空行混淆——空格应该以下划线(e.g., ____)的形式出现。

3 EM DASH (———)

用于参考文献列表中,表示作者或编者与前一个条目相同。当一个作者或编者的名字被多次引用时,用带句号的3-em dash (———.)替代,而无需重复输入相同名字。

———. The Last Dinosaur Book. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.
McCloskey, Deidre N. The Bourgeois Virtues.Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.
———. Crossing: A Memoir.Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.

——— —— — – - – — —— ——— —— — – - – — —— ——— —— — – - – — —— ———

——— - —— - — - – - – - — - —— - ———


二、如何用键盘打出

From Wikipedia

连字符(-)很容易在键盘上找到,而长划线(—)就比较棘手了,所以很多人会使用两个连字符替代(--)。Microsoft Word会将前后单词间的双连字符(--)自动转换为一个长划线(—)。

另外,出版物会用各种样式选择来呈现(render)长划线。有的使用三个相连的连字符并两侧留空( — ),有的不留两端空格(—),有的像《纽约时报》网络版和大多数非美国出版商那样用一个两端留空的短划线( – )(或者相当于两个连字符),有的使用不带空格的短划线(–),还有的,比如BBC网站,则使用两侧留空的连字符( - )。说到底,这还是一个编辑偏好的问题。

在MS Word中(Mac / PC),连打两个无空格连字符(--)可以自动转换为一个长划线(—)。

Microsoft Office系列软件和其他一些软件中,

短划线(–)通过「Ctrl」+ 数字键「-」键入,在查找和/或替换中用「^=」表示。

长划线(—)通过「Ctrl」+「Alt」+ 数字键「-」键入,在查找和/或替换中用「^+」表示。

也可以选择功能区中「插入(insert)」→「符号(symbol)」,然后从符号列表中选择添加。

笔者Mac系统下Word的键盘快捷方式

【Mac OS】操作简单,直接利用键盘

  • Hyphen(-):「-」(即数字「0」右侧的键)
  • En dash(–):「⌥ Option」+「-」
  • Em dash(—):「⌥ Option」+「⇧ Shift」+「-」

【Windows】只适用于数字小键盘,而非主键盘

  • Hyphen(-):「-」
  • En dash(–):「Alt」+「0150」
  • Em dash(—):「Alt」+「0151」
注:若使用笔记本,需先按NumLock键才能激活数字键盘。按键盘顶部的数字键不会出现符号。

【Linux】

①与Win相似,支持四位数代码调用特殊符号。先按「Ctrl」+「⇧ Shift」+「U」访问代码输入,出现“u”,输入代码后再按「↵ Enter」。

  • Hyphen(-):「-」
  • En dash(–):「Ctrl」+「⇧ Shift」+「U」→「2013」→「↵ Enter」
  • Em dash(—):「Ctrl」+「⇧ Shift」+「U」→「2014」→「↵ Enter」

②使用「⎄ Compose」键快速创建符号。若键盘无专用的「⎄ Compose」键,也可设定:打开Linux的「设置(Settings)」→选择「键盘布局(Keyboard Layout)」→单击「选项(Options)」,然后指定一个键盘上的键(可以是通常不用的键)成为「Compose」键。

  • Hyphen(-):「-」
  • En dash(–):「⎄ Compose」+「--」
  • Em dash(—):「⎄ Compose」+「---」


【Hyphen】

  • Unicode编码:U+2010
  • MS Word:先输入2010再按Alt+X
  • TeX:-
  • ASCII编码:被编为45号字符

【En dash】

  • Unicode:U+2013
  • MS Word:先输入2013再按Alt+X
  • TeX:--
  • HTML:&ndash

【Em dash】

  • Unicode:U+2014
  • MS Word:先输入2014再按Alt+X
  • TeX:---
  • HTML:&mdash

【Minus sign】

  • Unicode:U+2212
  • MS Word:先输入2212再按Alt+X
  • TeX:$-$
  • HTML:&minus

Bibliography:

[1]四类dashes和hyphens的区别及使用规则可参考Chicago Manual of Style: 16th Edition 331–336页。(Kira McFadden)

[2]《英语复合形容词》

[3] @magasa的知乎回答 其中有个别错误,如「EM DASH 3. 用于分隔引导从句的代词」等

[4] How to Type a Dash

[5] Using Em-dashes and En-dashes Properly

[6] Em dash (Em rule)

[7] En dash -- The Punctuation Guide

[8] Dash - Wikipedia

[9] Independent and Dependent Clauses

[10] What is a Dependent Clause?

[11] 破折号_百度百科

[12] 省略号(标点符号)_百度百科

[13] 引号字符种种 | 云居

[14] 为什么文章编辑器要使用智能引号(智能标点符号)?

[15] 如何在 Office Word 2010 輸入雙引號時不要自動替換為全型

[16] 编辑印象笔记时,英文引号总是自动变成中文引号,怎么禁止?

[17] Em dash -- The Punctuation Guide

[18] 插入语及插入句用法 | 新编英语阅读手册

[19] 《薄冰英语语法》

[20] 《朗文當代英漢雙解詞典》第一版(1988)

[21] 中级口译:由复合词引起的常见误译

[22] 英语中带「-」的复合词该怎么理解?有什么规律吗?

[23] 复合词什么时候用连字符,什么时候不用?

[24] The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition

[25] Dashes | Punctuation Rules

[26] Using the em-dash

[27] 罗琼.此时无声胜有声——论英语急止法的修辞功能.长沙铁道学院学报:社会科学版,2007,0(2);97-99

[28] Dash vs Hyphen

[29] Em dash, en dash, hyphen – which to use?

[30] Hyphens, Em Dashes, En Dashes—Everything You Need to Know

[31] What Is an Em Dash and How Do I Use It

[32] Using Dashes: En Dash, Em Dash, 2 Em Dash, or 3 Em Dash?


若有更专业的来源,欢迎各位批评指正。

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编辑于 2017-12-15