Nginx的https配置记录以及http强制跳转到https的方法梳理

Nginx的https配置记录以及http强制跳转到https的方法梳理

一、Nginx安装(略) 安装的时候需要注意加上 --with-http_ssl_module,因为http_ssl_module不属于Nginx的基本模块。 Nginx安装方法:

# ./configure --user=www --group=www --prefix=/usr/local/nginx --with-http_stub_status_module --with-http_ssl_module
# make && make install

二、生成证书(略) 可以使用openssl生成证书: 可参考:cnblogs.com/kevingrace/ 比如生成如下两个证书文件(假设存放路径为/usr/local/nginx/cert/): wangshibo.crt wangshibo.key

三、修改Nginx配置

server {
          listen 443;
          server_name www.anzichen.com.cn
          root /var/www/httpdocs/main/;

          ssl on;
          ssl_certificate /usr/local/nginx/cert/wangshibo.crt;
          ssl_certificate_key /usr/local/nginx/cert/wangshibo.key;
          ssl_session_timeout 5m;
          ssl_protocols SSLv2 SSLv3 TLSv1;
          ssl_ciphers HIGH:!aNULL:!MD5;                                            //或者是ssl_ciphers ALL:!ADH:!EXPORT56:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSLv2:+EXP;
          ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;

          access_log /var/www/wwww.anzichen.com.cn/logs/clickstream_ssl.log main;
          error_log /var/www/vhosts/www.anzichen.com.cn/logs/clickstream_error_ssl.log;

         if ($remote_addr !~ ^(124.165.97.144|133.110.186.128|133.110.186.88)) {           //对访问的来源ip做白名单限制
                rewrite ^.*$ /maintence.php last;
         }
         location ~ \.php$ {
              fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;
              fastcgi_read_timeout 300;
              fastcgi_index index.php;
              fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME /scripts$fastcgi_script_name;
             #include fastcgi_params;
             include fastcgi.conf;
         }
}

---------------------------------http访问强制跳转到https--------------------------------- 网站添加了https证书后,当http方式访问网站时就会报404错误,所以需要做http到https的强制跳转设置.

---------------一、采用nginx的rewrite方法---------------------

1) 下面是将所有的http请求通过rewrite重写到https上。 例如将所有的m.anzichen.com.cn域名的http访问强制跳转到https。 下面配置均可以实现:

配置1:

server {
    listen 80;
    server_name m.anzichen.com.cn;
    index index.html index.php index.htm;

    access_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-access.log main;
    error_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-error.log;

    rewrite ^(.*)$  https://$host$1 permanent;        //这是ngixn早前的写法,现在还可以使用。

    location ~ / {
    root /var/www/html/8080;
    index index.html index.php index.htm;
    }
    }

上面的跳转配置rewrite ^(.*)$ https://$host$1 permanent; 也可以改为下面

rewrite ^/(.*)$ http://www.anzichen.com.cn/$1 permanent;

或者

rewrite ^ http://www.anzichen.com.cn$request_uri? permanent;

配置2:

server {
    listen 80;
    server_name m.anzichen.com.cn;
    index index.html index.php index.htm;

    access_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-access.log main;
    error_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-error.log;

    return      301 https://$server_name$request_uri;      //这是nginx最新支持的写法

    location ~ / {
    root /var/www/html/8080;
    index index.html index.php index.htm;
    }
    }

配置3:这种方式适用于多域名的时候,即访问anzichen.com.cn的http也会强制跳转到https://m.anzichen.com.cn上面

server {
    listen 80;
    server_name m.anzichen.com.cnanzichen.com.cn *.anzichen.com.cn;
    index index.html index.php index.htm;

    access_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-access.log main;
    error_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-error.log;

    if ($host ~* "^www.anzichen.com.cn$") {
    rewrite ^/(.*)$ https://m.anzichen.com.cn/ permanent;
    }

    location ~ / {
    root /var/www/html/8080;
    index index.html index.php index.htm;
    }
    }

配置4:下面是最简单的一种配置

server {
    listen 80;
    server_name m.anzichen.com.cn;
    index index.html index.php index.htm;

    access_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-access.log main;
    error_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-error.log;

    if ($host = "m.anzichen.com.cn") {
       rewrite ^/(.*)$ http://m.anzichen.com.cn permanent;
    }

    location ~ / {
    root /var/www/html/8080;
    index index.html index.php index.htm;
    }
    }

---------------二、采用nginx的497状态码---------------------

497 - normal request was sent to HTTPS 解释:当网站只允许https访问时,当用http访问时nginx会报出497错误码

思路: 利用error_page命令将497状态码的链接重定向到https://dev.wangshibo.com这个域名上

配置实例: 如下访问m.anzichen.com或者anzichen.com的http都会被强制跳转到https

server {
    listen 80;
    server_name m.anzichen.com.cnanzichen.com.cn *.anzichen.com.cn;
    index index.html index.php index.htm;

    access_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-access.log main;
    error_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-error.log;

    error_page 497  https://$host$uri?$args; 

    location ~ / {
    root /var/www/html/8080;
    index index.html index.php index.htm;
    }
    }

也可以将80和443的配置放在一起:

server { 
    listen       127.0.0.1:443;  #ssl端口 
    listen       127.0.0.1:80;   #用户习惯用http访问,加上80,后面通过497状态码让它自动跳到443端口 
    server_name  m.anzichen.com.cn; 
    #为一个server{......}开启ssl支持 
    ssl                  on; 
    #指定PEM格式的证书文件  
    ssl_certificate      /etc/nginx/wangshibo.pem;  
    #指定PEM格式的私钥文件 
    ssl_certificate_key  /etc/nginx/wangshibo.key; 

    #让http请求重定向到https请求  
    error_page 497  https://$host$uri?$args; 

    location ~ / {
    root /var/www/html/8080;
    index index.html index.php index.htm;
    }
    }

---------------三、利用meta的刷新作用将http跳转到https---------------------

上述的方法均会耗费服务器的资源,可以借鉴百度使用的方法:巧妙的利用meta的刷新作用,将http跳转到https 可以基于http://dev.wangshibo.com的虚拟主机路径下写一个index.html,内容就是http向https的跳转

将下面的内容追加到index.html首页文件内

[root@localhost ~]# cat /var/www/html/8080/index.html
<html> 
<meta http-equiv="refresh" content="0;url=https://dev.wangshibo.com/"> 
</html>

[root@localhost ~]# cat /usr/local/nginx/conf/vhosts/test.conf
server {
    listen 80;
    server_name m.anzichen.com.cnanzichen.com.cn *.anzichen.com.cn;
    index index.html index.php index.htm;

    access_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-access.log main;
    error_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-error.log;

    #将404的页面重定向到https的首页 
    error_page  404 https://m.anzichen.com.cn/;  

    location ~ / {
    root /var/www/html/8080;         
    index index.html index.php index.htm;
    }
    }

****

下面是nginx反代tomcat,并且http强制跳转至https。 访问http://zrx.wangshibo.com和访问http://172.29.34.33:8080/zrx/结果是一样的

···

[root@BJLX_34_33_V vhosts]# cat zrx.conf
server {
    listen 80;
    server_name m.anzichen.com.cn;
    index index.html index.php index.htm;

    access_log  logs/access.log;
    error_log   logs/error.log;

    return      301 https://$server_name$request_uri;     

    location ~ / {
    root /data/nginx/html;
    index index.html index.php index.htm;
    }
    }


[root@BJLX_34_33_V vhosts]# cat ssl-zrx.conf
upstream tomcat8 {
    server 172.29.34.33:8080 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
}

server {
   listen 443;
   server_name m.anzichen.com.cn;
   ssl on;

   ### SSL log files ###
   access_log logs/ssl-access.log;
   error_log logs/ssl-error.log;

### SSL cert files ###
   ssl_certificate ssl/www.anzichen.com.cn.cer;     
   ssl_certificate_key ssl/www.anzichen.com.cn.key;  
   ssl_session_timeout 5m;

   location / {
   proxy_pass http://tomcat8/zrx/;                                     
   proxy_next_upstream error timeout invalid_header http_500 http_502 http_503;
   proxy_set_header Host $host;
   proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
   proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
   proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Proto https;
   proxy_redirect off;
}
}

---------------四、通过proxy_redirec方式---------------------

解决办法:

# re-write redirects to http as to https, example: /home
proxy_redirect http:// https://; 
编辑于 2017-12-15

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