世界各地的赛马博彩,你了解吗?

世界各地的赛马博彩,你了解吗?

现代赛马从其起源就和博彩密切联系在一起。《英国赛马百科全书》写到:“”博彩是赛马业的血液,如果没有博彩,我们就无法看到这么多精彩的赛事……”在很多国家及我国的香港、澳门特别行政区,蓬勃发展的现代赛马业因为博彩吸引了众多马友。同时,广大马迷的投注也是这些国家和地区赛马业的重要经济来源。博彩赛马与其他博彩业一样,既对社会经济发展做出了贡献,又有潜在危害性。第一赛马网小编今天将和广大马友们一起了解世界各国的赛马投注种类都有哪些相同及不同。


赛马博彩的基本名词解释

首先给大家解释一下赛马博彩的一些基本名词。与任何体育博彩一样,赔率(Odds)是赛马运动最直观的数字。顾名思义,赔率就相当于投资回报率。假如某种投注的赔率是10倍,那如果投注成功你就会获得本金10的回报,相反的如果没猜中,你的本金也将全部输掉。赔率会随着全体参与者投注的金额而变动。赔率是投注中最重要的一个概念,在赛场下的投注屏幕里每匹参赛马的名字后面都会附有赔率。基本上投注的人越多,分钱的人也越多,具体到每一笔投注上分的钱就越少,因此赔率就会越低,赔率越低则马匹越热门。反之,没人看好的马匹赔率会很高,这种马匹就是所谓的冷门马,不过“黑马”也会从冷门马中间诞生。


最常见的投注种类

投注种类方面,赛马中最常见的投注方法有两种,一种叫“win(独赢)”,就是指猜中某一匹马成为冠军;另一种叫“place(位置)”指猜中某一匹马跑进前三或前二。所有接受赛马投注的国家或地区均提供“独赢”彩池及“位置”彩池,包括日本、韩国、美国、英国、美国、法国、新加坡、中国香港、中国澳门等均接受此两类投注。


仅有部分国家会提供的彩池有哪些?

有些投注玩法仅有部分国家会提供,比如“二重彩”、连赢。“二重彩”是指定两头马跑进第一及第二名(指定名次顺序),不同国家或地区对此叫法也有所不同。其中,日本把“二重彩”称之“马単”,英国的“二重彩”,英文原名为“STRAIGHT FORECAST”,法国则称之为“Couple Ordre”。

“连赢”指定两头马跑进第一及第二名(任意名次顺序),这种玩法在日本、中国香港、法国、英国、新加坡、韩国及美国等地皆有提供。


说到独有彩池, 三T,孖T等玩法仅为中国香港独有。日本的“括号连赢”(枠连)也是世界上独一无二的。


以下是日本,韩国、美国、英国、美国、法国、新加坡、中国香港、中国澳门等国家或地区的投注种类详述:


日本

日本中央竞马会提供八种投注方法,以下投注方式除WIN5均可在每场比赛发售。以下投注方式译名采用中国香港、中国澳门、马来西亚及新加坡相应的译名。

日本中央竞马场


独赢(单胜):所投注的马匹在赛马事跑进第一。


位置(复胜):所投注的马匹跑进第一至第三的任何一个名单。


二重彩(马単):指定两头马跑进第一及第二名(指定名次顺序)。


连赢(马复):指定两头马跑进第一及第二名(任意名次顺序)。


位置连赢:指定两头马跑进第一至第三名次内(任意名次顺序)。


括号连赢(枠连):根据出赛马匹骑师的帽色共分为八组(1=白、2=黑、3=红、4=蓝、5=黄、6绿、7=橙、8=粉红),该指定组合在比赛中跑进第一及第二(任意名次顺序,亦可能出现同组马匹包办连赢)。


单T(三连复):指定三头马进入第一至第三名(任意名次顺序)。


三重彩(三连单):指定三头马进入第一至第三名(指定名次顺序)。


WIN5:在一个赛日提供日本各地马场合共指定五场赛事的独赢预测,全中可瓜分奖金。(每注最低100日元)



美国

美国马彩的投注类型主要包括单场单马投注类型单场多马投注类型多场多马投注类型三大类,三种投注类型的难度依次递增,马彩的投注起点不高,一般两美元起可下注,如若不能亲临现场,市内投注站也为人们参加赛马活动提供了极大的方便。

美国德尔马赛马场(Del Mar Racetrack)

在北美赛马中,最常见的三种赌博方式是独冠军(独赢)、猜位置、猜前三名猜冠军有时被称为直接投注。如果所下注的马儿跑了第一名,那么投注方就是赢家。在猜马的位置时,你赌的是你选的马会跑获第一名或第二名。猜前三名是猜某一匹马有可能会得第1名、第2名或第3名。由于选择一匹马跑入前三要比赌一匹马跑获冠军容易得多,因此,相比较而言,猜前三名这种玩法的回报要比猜头马低得多。如果一场比赛中参赛马不多,博彩公司有可能就不会提供猜位置和猜前三名这两种玩法。(如果买家事先已经下了赌注,赌注会被取消,所下注的赌金会被退还给买家)。

美国商业赛马的投注返还率居全球较高水平,税赋居全球较低水平,远远低于中国香港地区13%的税率。采取低税率的根本原因是马业能吸纳农业现代化进程中分离出来的农业富余人口就业。

(原文)

In North American racing, the three most common ways to bet money are to win, to place, and to show. A bet to win, sometimes called a "straight" bet, means staking money on the horse, and if it comes in first place, the bet is a winner. In a bet to place, you are betting on your horse to finish either first or second. A bet to show wins if the horse finishes first, second or third. Since it is much easier to select a horse to finish first, second, or third than it is to select a horse just for first, the show payoffs will be much lower on average than win payoffs. If there are a small number of horses in the race, show or place bets may not be offered (or if bets have already been made, they are cancelled and the wagered amounts refunded).



中国香港

香港沙田赛马场

香港赛马会是香港唯一合法接受赛马投注的机构,马会提供多种投注方式,彩池及投注额属世界前列。马会在彩池中抽取佣金作为营运经费,并抽取部分作为博彩税缴纳予香港特别行政区政府,并会将部分收益作为社会福利用途。1978年开始明文规定未满18岁不得参与博彩。


除了在场内投注外,马会亦接受场外投注、电话投注、网上投注、流动通讯投注及自助终端机投注,现有超过100间场外投注站,及超过100万个电话投注户口。


香港赛马会自1982至1983年度马季开始,投注基本计算由5港元为单位改为以10港元为单位至今。大部分彩池包括海外赛事,都在赛前一天中午12时开售,除骑师王在下午5时开售以及在特定时间及场次暂停受注外以及组合独赢3拣1在下午5时45分开售,所有彩池于相关场次开跑时才截止投注。

香港马会投注种类:

点击查看大图


法国

法国尚蒂伊赛马场


独赢(Win):选中一场赛事中的第一名赛马。


位置:选中一场赛事中跑入前三名的任意一匹(场上的马匹必须不少于8匹),宣布出赛马匹少于七匹时,选中第1名或第2名马匹。


连赢:选中一场赛事中的第1名及第2名马匹,可不按顺序。


位置Q:任意顺序选择前三匹马中的两匹。例子:跑赢的马匹号数是1-2-3。可供投注的组合是:1和2,1和3或2和3三种组合。这三种组合红利也不同。


二重彩:顺序选中一场比赛中的前两名。一个人可以玩所有的组合,但是这些赌注需要加倍。然而,如果最受欢迎的马匹被打败,那么回报也会非常丰厚。


单T:不论次序选中一场赛事的第一、第二及第三名马匹。


三重彩:顺序选中一场赛事中的第1名、第2名及第3名马匹。如果要押注所有可能的组合,这些赌注需要乘以6。


三T:按顺序挑选前三名,同时将会减少不按顺序投注的奖金。要把所有的组合按正确的顺序押注,赌注需要乘以6。这一投注规则自1954年创立以来,成为了赛马博彩的重要玩法。随后,它被四重彩和五重彩(见下文)所取代。


四重彩:受三T的启发,四重彩的规则是顺序选中一场赛事中的第1名、第2名、第3名及第4名马匹。并且减少对那些没有按正确顺序押注的人的赌注和奖金。要把所有的组合按正确的顺序押注,赌注需要乘以24。


五重彩:在PMU的投注名单上,这大约占了每日投注的25%,五重彩只适用于当天的比赛!除了按正确顺序的投注前五个来赢得“Tirelire”,一个价值高达1000万欧元的累积奖金之外,你必须在你的投注单上正确标记“Numero plus”,一个从1到3,000中随机选择的数字。当一个人在线与PMU在“e-quinte”上下注时,规则会略有不同。


四连环:受Keno的启发,这个流行的赌局要求你按任意顺序挑选前四匹马,而赌注的不同取决于你选了多少匹马。这种受欢迎的玩法要求您以任何顺序挑选前四匹马,并根据您选择的马数来分配红利。选择四匹马(Multi 4),红利比选择Multi5(五匹马),Multi6和Multi7更大。Mini-Multi适用于少于12名跑步者的比赛,主要区别在于没有Multi7可用。


四选二:在前四名中选择两匹马。无论你选择哪匹马,红利总是相同的,而位置Q则为每个组合提供不同的红利。


(原文)

· imple Gagnant (Win): Choose the winner

· Simple Place: Choose one of the first three horses past the post (races with eight runners and more) or pick one of the first 2 horses past the post (races with 4 to 7 runners). This is the most common bet across the world.

· Couple Gagnant: Pick the first two horses in any order. It’s the easiest bet, and the most successful.

· Couple Place: Choose two out of the first three horses in any order. Three different dividends are paid subject to the combinations. Example: The finish is 1-2-3. The payout is specific for the combination 1-2, another for the bet 1-3, and another on 2 and 3.

· Couple Ordre: Pick the first two past the post in a race in the right order. One can play all the combinations, but the stake needs to be doubled. The return can however be extremely fruitful if the favourite is beaten by an outsider.

· Trio: Pick the first three past the post in a race, in any order

· Trio Ordre: Pick the first three past the post in a race, in the right order. To bet on all the possible combinations, the stake needs to be multiplied by six.

· Tierce: Pick the first three past the post in order, with a reduced dividend for tierces not in the right order. To bet on all the combinations in the right order, the stakes need to be multiplied by six. This bet has made racing’s fortune since its creation in 1954. It was subsequently overtaken by the Quarte+ and Quinte+ (see below)

· Quarte+: Inspired by the tierce, pick the first four past the post in order, with a reduced dividend for those not in the right order and a “Bonus 3” for the first three in any order. To bet on all the combinations in the right order, the stakes need to be multiplied by 24.

· Quinte+: The star act on the PMU’s betting roster, this makes up of approximately 25% of daily betting, and it only applies to one race a day! Pick the first five past the post in the correct finishing order to win, although there are several reduced dividends that can be collected: Bonus 4 (first four in the any order), Bonus 3 (first three in any order), Bonus 4sur5 (four out of the first five). In addition to the first five in the right order, to win the “Tirelire”, a jackpot that can be worth as much as €10 million, you must have the correct “Numero plus” on your ticket, a number selected randomly from 1 to 3,000. The rules slightly differ when one bets with the PMU online on an “e-quinte”.

· Multi: Inspired by Keno, this popular bet requires you to pick the first four horses past the post in any order, with the dividend differing depending on how many horses you have picked. With a selection of four horses (Multi 4), the dividend will be bigger than choosing a Multi5 (five horses), and a Multi6 and Multi7 for example. The Mini-Multi is available in races with less than 12 runners, and the principal difference is that there is no Multi7 available.

· 2sur4: Choose two horses out of the first four past the post. The dividend is always the same no matter which horses you choose in contrast to Couple Places, where a different dividend is given for each combination.



英国

英国雅士谷赛马场


相比起香港赛马会中绝大多数观众对赌赛的热情,英国的马迷们对博彩的兴趣显得并不高。现场看赛马,对于英国的马迷来说,更多是一种社交场合和娱乐活动,或者直白地说就是一种朋友聚会的机会,就如同日常更多的逛公园和听演唱会一样。所以,现场看赛马的观众大多会穿的比较正式,比赛过程中,也会喝酒聊天,一家老小直接在赛马场的草地上野餐也是常见的,至于赌马,只是一个可有可无的小插曲罢了。根据统计,英国2015年全国一年的赛马投注额还不到150镑,相当于香港一个城市的马迷一年赌的钱和英国全年赌的钱不相上下,这还是香港在只有两个马场且一年只跑10个月的情况下。不过,许多赛马观众还是会投点小注讨个彩头,也让观赛过程更加刺激。

在英国,有多种投注方式以供买家选择。


独赢

最简单也最常见的一种就是“独赢”,买家选中一场赛事中的第一名马匹,就可获得奖金。


E/W投注法:另一个非常受欢迎的赌注方式是E/W投注法。这实际上是两种赌法,一种是猜哪一匹马能赢冠军,另一种是猜位置,也就是既买独赢又买名次赢。一般情况下,投注者所下注的马匹只要跑入前三名即可赢得奖金,但是在英国,猜“位置”的玩法会根据赛事类型和参赛马数量的不同而有所变化。买家的赌金中关于“猜位置”的部分,所占的比率会相对小一些,在不同的比赛中份额是不同的,但通常是1/4。


单式投注:顾名思义,就是只押注一场比赛。单式(单赛)竞投的方式比较简单,对初学者来说猜中的几率也更高。


多式投注:同时押注多场比赛。相对于单式投注,多式竞投的方式要复杂的多,不仅需要连续投注多场比赛,还建立在赢家投注和位置投注的原理上衍生出许多组合的投注方式,竞投的玩家还需要熟悉一系列的投注组合,比如jackpot就是指猜对六场race里的胜者。多赛竞投的成功率较低,自然赔率或回报率也要高许多。


顺序二重彩:这就要求买家在比赛中按顺序猜中跑获第一名及第二名的两匹马。赔率将会在比赛结束后再设定,所以猜中头马和亚军的赔率有可能是12/1,而“独赢”需要买家准确猜出冠军得主。因此,这种押注法在美国被称为“顺序二重彩”。


反次序二重彩:这种玩法类似于上面的顺序二重彩,但是不要求猜中马匹跑完比赛的顺序。这实际上是两种赌注,所以10英镑的反次序二重彩将花费20英镑。


三重彩:这种投注方式是为勇敢的买家们准备的——他们需要按照正确顺序选中一场赛事中的第1名、第2名及第3名马匹。这种玩法很难,但是回报也很诱人。


原文:

WIN BET

There are a number of different types of bets you can place and the simplest and probably most common is the win bet. This is one bet, on one outcome and you are backing the horse to win the race. Told you it was neither rocket science nor brain surgery!


EACH WAY

Another hugely popular bet is to back a horse each way. This is effectively two bets, with one going on the horse to win and the other going on it to “place”. The place terms vary according to the type of race and number of horses in it, although it’s normally for your horse to finish in the top three. The place portion of your bet pays out at a fraction of the main odds and again this varies but is usually 1/4.

So, if you have a £10 each way bet on a horse at 4/1 that will cost you £20, with £10 on the win and £10 on the place part of the bet. If it wins both bets win, so you get £10 x 4 = £40, plus your £10 stake back for the win portion. You also get your each way bet too, so ¼ of 4/1 is 1/1, or evens, so you get £10 plus your stake of £10 so £20 in total. Overall you get £70 for a profit of £50. If the horse finished second, third or fourth you would lose your £10 win bet but make £10 profit from the each way win to leave you level overall.

Each way bets are usually only used on horses at relatively long odds as otherwise you can still end up losing overall if your pick doesn’t win but only places. They can be a great way to back an outsider and still profit if makes the places with a huge bonus should it really cause an upset and win.

SINGLE BET

This is where you are backing just one, single event. So if you back Big Banana in the 12.30 at Bangor that is a single bet. This could either be, as above, to win (a win single) or each way.

A single bet is the most standard type of sports wager; a bet on the outcome of a single event. Anyone who has ever made a bet with a friend on which team will win a game or who will win a race is familiar with how a single bet works. Also known as a straight bet, the single bet is the staple of sports betting and is extremely popular among both complete beginners and seasoned professionals.

MUTLIPLE BETS

There are numerous different types of multiple bet. Starting from the most simple, a double, up to the complex, almost ridiculous Goliath, which actually includes 247 separate bets in one single wager.

A double involves backing two separate events, for example Big Banana to win the aforementioned 12.30 at Bangor (hypothetically at 2/1) and Synaptic Explosion to win the 15.00 at Wetherby (at evens). Both bets must win for you to succeed. A £1 double would cost you £1 and if both horses deliver you would get £6 back. After the first horse wins you effectively have £3 (£1 stake plus £2 profit) on the second horse at evens, resulting in a payout of £6 and profit of £5.

A treble is the same concept but with three selections. As well as being called multiple bets these are also known as accumulators, or accas for short. You may hear the terms fourfold, fivefold and so on, referring to accumulators with that number of selections.

In addition to these simple multiples you also have various combination bets such as the previously mentioned Goliath. With these you have multiple selections (for example a Yankee has four) and you cover the various doubles, trebles and, in this case, a fourfold. A Yankee is 11 bets in total: six doubles, four trebles and one fourfold. You need at least two picks to win to get anything back and as it is 11 bets, a £1 Yankee would cost £11.

STRAIGHT FORECAST

This requires you to pick the top two horses in a race, in the correct finishing order. The odds will be set for that particular outcome, so the forecast of Lucky Jim (first) and Bad Luck Bob (second) might be 12/1 and to win you need that exact outcome. For this reason the bet is known in the US as an Exacta.

REVERSE FORECAST

Similar to the above but the horses can finish in any order. This is effectively two bets, so a £10 reverse forecast would cost £20.

TRICAST

One for the brave – pick the top three horses in the correct order. Big rewards await the successful here.



新加坡


独赢彩

选择您认为会胜出的冠军马。

独赢彩每投注额$5

新加坡赛事最低派彩为$6,除非由马会全权酌情决定,并宣布某场赛事的最低独赢派彩为$5.30。其余赛事为$5.30。


卷式独赢

其他赛事皆为$5.30。

准确预测两个或三个场次的优胜马匹,即可赢奖。

您在每场赛事中所赢得的奖金和/或退款将会自动投注在下一场赛事中。

卷式独赢适用于新加坡和香港赛事,并将分享独赢彩池的奖金


位置彩

在至少有七匹马出赛的赛事,选出前三名马匹。若只有四至六匹马出赛,则选出排名第一或第二的马匹。

位置彩每投注额$5

最低彩金为$5.10


预测彩

出排名第一和第二的马匹(不分次序)。

预测彩每投注额$2

最低彩金为$2.50


位置预测彩

选出任何两匹排名第一、第二或第三的马匹(不分次序)。

位置预测彩每投注额$2

最低彩金为$2.50


三重彩

顺序选出首三名马匹。

三重彩每投注额$2

最低彩金为$3


单T彩

选出首三名马匹(不分次序)。

单T彩每投注额$2

最低彩金为$3


四重彩

顺序选出首四名马匹。

四重彩每投注额$2

最低彩金为$3


部分投注四重彩

顺序选出首四名马匹。

部分投注四重彩每投注额最低金额须是$20或完整注额的百分之10,两者之中以较高者为准

之后增额投资须以$1的倍数起跳

最低彩金为$0.05


韩国

现时韩国境内有首尔、釜山及济州三个马场定期办赛,其中逢周五跑釜山及济州,周六跑首尔及济州,周日则跑首尔及釜山。下月尾在首尔上演的第二届亚洲挑战杯及第七届亚洲见习骑师挑战赛,见证韩国赛马进一步与国际接轨。,不过,韩国赛驹质素暂难与世界主流相比,未来日子有待提升。

韩国除有三个马场外,还有三个具规模的育马场及30个场外投注站。明文规定下,当地赛马投注额的73%用于派彩,余下27%分为三份,包括16%税项、7%赛马营运费及4%盈利。

据了解,韩国投注类型主要包括独赢式、连赢式、位置Q式、位置式、二重彩及3连赢式6种玩法。


独赢式

命中一场赛事中的第一名马匹的玩法。


连赢式

无序地命中一场赛事中的第一名及第二名马匹的玩法。


位置Q式

无序地命中一场赛事中的前3名马匹中的任意2匹马的玩法。


位置式

命中一场赛事中的第一名或第2名或第3名马匹的玩法。


二重彩

有序地命中一场赛事中的第一名及第二名马匹的玩法。


3连赢式

无序地命中一场赛事中的第一名、第二名及第三名马匹的玩法。



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编辑:一马君

编辑于 2018-08-23