英文论文Introduction写作误区和建议

英文论文Introduction写作误区和建议

这是本专栏Introduction引言写作系列文章中的第三篇。


该系列三篇文章全面介绍了:

一. 什么是Introduction?

二. 写Introduction需要包含的几大核心内容

三. 中国学者们在写作中需避免的常见错误(此处附有我们工作室外籍教师整理的海量学术句型干货)(本文)


没错!文末有你们喜闻乐见的海量Introduction句型干货,感谢我们工作室外籍老师的辛勤整理!


欢迎大家围观Introduction系列的前两篇文章:

中科院张老师:科研论文Introduction引言部分的作用zhuanlan.zhihu.com图标中科院张老师:英文论文Introduction引言部分写什么?zhuanlan.zhihu.com图标

Introduction写作中需避免的常见错误


在罗列写作误区之前先回答一个大家关注度讨论度很高的问题,那就是

什么时候写Introduction?(When to write Introduction)

什么时候写论文Introduction?https://www.zhihu.com/video/1057979136479510528

(Video Source: Youtube. By WORDVICE)


正如上面的视频所陈述,在这里我们推荐理工科的论文写作中,把引言写作安排到方法论(Methods)、结果(Results)和讨论(Discussion)部分完成之后,但是在结论(Conclusion)之前去开展写作。这样的安排对于作者写作视角的搭建大有裨益,毕竟已经完成了文章的内容主体,相较于开始就写Introduction的做法,也更能精准呈现文章的信息。


那么接下来我们一一盘点写作中的常见误区吧!

论文Introduction常见写作误区https://www.zhihu.com/video/1057979547785441280

(Video Source: Youtube. By WORDVICE)


「误区1」. 一个观点或者论据引用一大串文献 — Give too many citations for one point

例如Many studies have found a significant association between X and Y [4-15]. 这句话引用文献 [4-15] 实在是太多了,堆砌在一个观点的后面是审稿人很反感的。尽量节选重要的经典的或者最近的文献来引用。如果说这些文献实在是都很值得引用,那么不妨尝试改用下面的句式来展现A significant association has been found between X and Y in men
[4-7], women [8-11], and children [12-15].


「误区2」. 指出研究课题不具体说明到底如何有研究价值 — Explain why your research topic is worth of study

例如我在修改学生论文时最常遇到的表达就是“… is important…”,但是没有给出细节描述重要性体现在哪些方面。所以如果你想说The development of new materials is important for the automotive industry, 则应该要这样去表述The development of new materials is necessaryfor the automotive industry to produce stronger, lighter vehicles, which will improve safety and fuel economy.(推荐表达,加粗部分具体指明在哪几个点体现新材料的重要性)


「误区3」. 细节过多导致句子不够精炼 — Bury your readers in detail

引言部分不要摆太多的细节和具体数据,尤其是关于论文研究结果的具体数据。关于研究方法、研究结果只需要概述性地在引言部分点到为止即可,接下来的章节会给它们更多的空间去展开更具体的内容。如果说引言部分所有论据和陈述都罗列太多细节性的内容,会让句子显得非常臃肿,导致干扰信息过多让读者抓不住重点。


例如 a previous study conducted in 2014 found that 10% fewer individuals were diagnosed with age-related diseases, such as arthritis, in areas with such healthcare policies in place.

推荐修改如下更精炼简洁 a previous study found that fewer individuals were diagnosed with age-related diseases in areas with such healthcare policies.


读到这里,如果你觉得有帮助,请帮忙先点个赞,我们接着来总结经典句型……

Introduction句型推荐

1.「General introduction」:

For decades, one of the most popular ideas in … literature is the idea that …

Recent theoretical developments have revealed that …

A common strategy used to study … is …

These approaches have been influential in field … because of …

Most of the theories of … are however focused on explaining …

The field has gradually broadened as …

… has been widely adopted in the field of …

One of the major topics to be investigated in … is …

… is widely considered at the time of …

… phenomenon has been widely observed through…


2.「Problem definition」:

There is a further problem with …

One primary problem with … is that …

The foremost problems are the facts that …

A challenging problem which arises in this domain is …

A well-known problem with … is that it does not take into account the …

This appears as a more straightforward problem compared to the … turns out to be even more challenging because …

This poses some problems when carrying out the …

Unfortunately, this approach results in problems related to …

These constraints make the problem difficult to …

Most of the research in … field is aimed at solving …


3.「Gaps in literature」:

There has been less previous evidence for …

Other studies have failed to …

To our knowledge, few studies have yielded …

Limited open literature to date has reported…

Only a few studies have shown that…

However, … has rarely been examined directly

Moreover, few studies have focused on …


4.「Problems solution」:

There are many alternative methods are available for solving…

A solution to this problem is proposed in …

One approach to solve this problem involves the use of … can be applied to overcome …

A number of works have shown that this problem can be solved by using …

A large number of alternative approaches have been developed to…

Potential techniques to solve contemporary problems in … are…

The standard solution to the problem is based on …

Broadly speaking, the problem can be addressed by …

Recently, a more general solution has been developed for…


5.「Study motivation」:

It is of interest to know whether … still …

It would be of special interest to…

We therefore analyzed … and investigated whether…

For this study, it was of importance to investigate …

We investigated whether … can be partly explained by …

To examine the impact of …, we …

One common approach to testify… is to…

A new approach is therefore needed for …


6.「Aims & objectives」:

The aim is to develop more sophisticated methods for …

For our first goal, we focus on two problems …

The aim here is to investigate …

This project aims to develop an overarching framework to…

The aim of the experiment is to compare …

The overall goal of this research was to pursue …

One of the major aims of this work was to create …

The main objective is to investigate methods for improving…

The objectives can be restated in the light of …

The objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of …


7.「Significance and advantages of your work」:

This thesis documents several key contributions of…

The first main contribution proposed in this field is …

The contributions of this work are presented as follows: …

The key contribution of this work is the solution it provides …

It has significant benefits in terms of …

These point out the advantages and practicability of …

One of the key benefits of the algorithm is …

The main advantage compared to previous ones is …

One practical advantage of the method is that it can be used in …

In comparison with other techniques, this method has the advantage of …

The benefit of using the … is expected to …


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往期推荐:

中科院张老师:【如何快速产生科研好想法?】

中科院张老师:【如何快速完成论文】

中科院张老师:英文学术写作选词要义


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编辑于 2019-05-18

文章被以下专栏收录

    科研路漫漫,初涉尤艰难。很多科研小白怀着一腔热血投身科研,却由于科研基本素养没有得到系统培养而走了不少弯路。跌跌撞撞确定了选题、熬完了实验,又开始空对电脑憋论文,然而憋出内伤的论文却换来了导师返稿的“祖国江山一片红”。别急,在这里中科院张老师将倾力奉献多年一线的科研和教学经验,助力大家走出迷茫,做一枚自信的科研党。